What is Health sciences |Medicine and its branches

Health sciences are those sciences whose core parts include health, or health care. Health sciences study everything about what health is, how diseases infect humans, what norms should be taken, or how can personal health be maintained? The aims and goals of this field are to develop technologies and interventions that can be used in healthcare to improve the treatment of the patients.

There are two parts to health science: the study, knowledge and research, and implementation of that knowledge to improve health, how human and animal bodies function, and what are the ways to cure diseases. Mental health, social health, and physical health are the three main branches of health sciences.

Health sciences develop ways to prevent a particular illness from spreading. All this is achieved with the help of medicines. But the question arises what medicine is and how does it function, so let’s have a look at it.

Medicine and its branches

Medicine is the science and practice of curing people of any infection or disease. Medicines help patients fight illness and allow them to restore and maintain their health. Some of its branches are –

  1. Anesthesiology – It deals with life support and anesthesia during surgery.
  2. Angiology – It deals with the diseases related to the circulatory system.
  3. Audiology – It cures and prevents hearing damage.
  4. Bariatrics – It deals with causes, treatment, and prevention of obesity.
  5. Cardiology – It deals with disorders related to heart and vessels.
  6. Dentistry – It deals with the disorders, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases related to the oral cavity.
  7. Dermatology – It deals with the structures, functions, and diseases of the skin.
  8. Endocrinology – It deals with the diseases of the endocrine system.
  9. Geriatrics – It deals with the general health and well being of the elderly.
  10. Hematology – It deals with the blood and circulatory system.

Now let’s see how health sciences evolved and developed technologies to cure diseases. To know their history, we have to first understand the history of medicines as both are interrelated and interconnected.

History of medicines gives us information about how medicines got evolved from time to time and proved to be very beneficial in the treatment of a particular disease. Sushruta from India introduced the concepts of medical prognosis and diagnosis. In the 5th century BCE, the Hippocratic oath was written by Greek people which is a direct inspiration for physicians today. In the middle ages, surgical practices were improved and written in the Rogerius’s The practice of surgery. In the 19th century, humorism was replaced by the germ theory of disease which explained the cause of the disease that allowed to invent preventive measures and treatments to cure diseases.

Now let’s have a glance at different diagnostic methods that are widely used.

  1. Physical examination

Also known as medical examination, or clinical examination. In this exam, a medical examiner examines a patient and look for any symptoms of diseases. It consists of two branches, namely auscultation, and percussion.

  1. Medical history

Also known as case history or anamnesis. It consists of a series of questions that are asked about the patients and the other people who know the patients. It aims at obtaining useful information that can then be used to give prognosis and diagnosis treatment to the patients.

  1. Medical imaging

It is the process of creating a three-dimensional structure of the inner part of the body with the help of electric and magnetic fields. It helps in revealing the organs of the body that are hidden by bones and muscles as well as to diagnose and treat disease. It consists of a CT scan, PET scan, X-ray, MRI(Medical Resonance Imaging), SPECT (Single-photon emission computed tomography), Ultrasound, and Microscopy.

  1. Phlebotomy

Also known as a venipuncture. It is the process of obtaining inner access for venous blood sampling therapy. This procedure is performed by paramedics, medical practitioners, some EMTs, dialysis technicians, and medical laboratory scientists.

With the advancements in technology in the future, we will we able to provide treatment to every patient that not only helps to raise our health status in the society bit also helps in improving the quality of life of an infected individual.

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